Pedestrian Accidents Increase in Arizona

Pedestrian accidents causing serious injury or death have seen a dramatic increase in Arizona. In Tucson, a 17-year-old Cholla High School student walking to school last month was tragically killed by a speeding motorist as she tried to cross a busy westside street. In January, two pedestrians were killed while attempting to cross local streets. One was a man who was struck by an SUV as he crossed an eastside street. The other was a young man who was celebrating his birthday just after the new year and was hit by a truck as he crossed a dark road on the northwest side of town.

When a pedestrian is killed it is a devastating loss for the victim’s loved ones and friends, but it’s also tragic for the at-fault motorist who will have to live the rest of his life knowing he was responsible for someone’s death.

According to the Arizona Governor’s Office of Highway Safety, fatalities in Arizona increased more than 40 percent in a four-year period, with 228 pedestrian fatalities in 2017 compared with 160 in 2013.

The Governors Highway Safety Association released a report last year showing pedestrian deaths at levels not seen in decades. Arizona was one of four states that experienced almost half of all pedestrian deaths, and was ranked first in the nation in pedestrian fatalities. In Tucson there were 28 pedestrian deaths in 2018, up from 24 in 2017 and 12 in 2016.

Factors Contributing to Pedestrian Accidents

The Arizona Governor’s Office of Highway Safety is working with local and national officials to determine the causes of the increase in pedestrian traffic deaths and to create awareness across the state about precautions both motorists and pedestrians should take when on the road.

Several factors have been identified as contributing to the increase in pedestrian accidents. A major one is distracted driving, particularly with the rise of cell phone use. Drivers who are paying attention to their cell phones aren’t paying enough attention to the road, or to pedestrians crossing in front of them.

We know that distracted driving is dangerous, but so is distracted walking. Texting, talking on your phone, checking e-mail, and playing games on a cell phone are dangerous distractions that pedestrians may not realize put them in danger, especially when attempting to cross a street.

The rise in pedestrian deaths has also coincided with the popularity of SUVs. Their larger size, heavier weight, and higher clearance makes it more likely that hitting a pedestrian will have deadly consequences.


Pedestrians not crossing at an intersection, wearing dark clothes at night, or being under the influence of drugs or alcohol puts them at increased risk of being hit by a car.

For drivers, speeding, being impaired by drugs or alcohol, making a right or left turn without checking for pedestrians, and not respecting crosswalks are preventable behaviors that can reduce pedestrian deaths.

Pedestrian Safety in Tucson

Tucson city officials have been working to make local streets safer for pedestrians. Tucson installed High-Intensity Activated Crosswalk (HAWK) signals to help citizens cross streets more safely. A pedestrian who wants to cross a street activates the signal, which changes from yellow to red to alert traffic to stop.

Tucson installed the first HAWK signal in 2000. Since then, they have been 90 percent effective in making drivers aware of pedestrians preparing to cross a roadway. Currently Tucson has more than 100 HAWK signals, and the city recently received a grant from the Federal Highway Administration to install six more.

Avoiding Pedestrian Traffic Accidents

Both drivers and pedestrians can take steps to prevent pedestrian accidents. Drivers in Arizona must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians, whether they are in a marked or unmarked crosswalk.  All intersections on public roads have crosswalks. If they are not marked, they are designated by an “imaginary” line where the sidewalk or edge of the roadway crosses the street.

Drivers are also required by law to exercise due care to avoid striking a pedestrian. Here are tips to help motorists share the road safely with pedestrians:

  • Use your turn signal to let pedestrians know when you are changing lanes or turning at an intersection.
  • Be aware of pedestrians near the roadway; be particularly aware of the presence of children or anyone who seems incapacitated or confused as they may suddenly dart in front of traffic.
  • Make sure you slow down when pedestrians are nearby, as the chances of serious injury or death increase with speed. While a pedestrian hit at 20 mph has a chance of survival of 95 percent, those odds decrease to 16 percent at 40 mph. 
  • It is against the law to pass a school bus with flashing lights and an extended stop sign, so you must always stop. Even if the lights are not flashing, watch out for children around the bus, who may dart into traffic without notice.
  • Pay attention to the road when driving. Don’t be distracted by activities such as checking a cell phone or texting while driving. 

Pedestrians should also exercise caution when walking along a roadway or crossing a street. When crossing a road anywhere other than at a marked or unmarked crosswalk, a pedestrian must yield the right-of-way to vehicles. The following tips will help you stay safe when walking on or near a roadway:

  • Always make sure that you can see traffic.
  • If crossing a street or roadway, try to cross at a location that gives you the best view of traffic and where drivers can best see you.
  • Don’t assume that drivers will always stop, even if you are at a crosswalk. Make sure everyone is stopped before you step onto the road. Be particularly aware of turning vehicles, as they may be looking at oncoming traffic and may not see you.
  • Make sure you are visible. Walk toward traffic and wear bright or reflective clothes at night.
  • When walking in a rural area, walk as far off the roadway as possible.
  • Stay alert when crossing a street. Don’t use headphones, cell phones or anything that may distract you from safely crossing the street.

Being alert on the road, both as drivers and pedestrians, can save lives.

Know the Risks and Benefits of Medical Devices

Medical science continues to make great progress in diagnosing illnesses and treating them. Devices of many types allow doctors to see inside the body to diagnose a variety of conditions. Other types of medical devices that are used or implanted inside the body provide relief from many painful conditions. However, no matter how far medical science has progressed, there are still risks and benefits that people need to consider before undergoing even the most routine procedure involving a medical device.

Here are a few common devices and procedures, as well as some injuries and issues that have been associated with them.

Medical Scopes

Each year, millions of people in the U.S. have a procedure with a medical scope of some type. In these procedures, a doctor places an instrument called an endoscope inside the body to examine the esophagus, stomach, bile ducts, colon, lungs, bladder, or other organs. After each procedure these devices are cleaned and re-used on another patient. Duodenoscopes, which are used to diagnose and treat stomach and other GI tract conditions, have been of particular concern.

Since 2013, at least 35 people have died from after having a procedure that used a duodenoscope. The problem is that the design of the scope makes cleaning it extremely difficult, so even if the scope is cleaned according to the manufacturer’s instructions, bacteria can still be trapped inside the scope and transferred to another patient. A paper published in April 2018 showed that 71 percent of scopes tested at three major U.S. hospital were contaminated with bacteria.

In 2015 the FDA directed three duodenoscope manufacturers (Olympus, Fujifilm, and Pentax) to study this issue. Interim results of these studies released in December 2018 showed that up to three percent of samples were contaminated with “low-concern” organisms, and up to three percent were contaminated with organisms of high concern. Sampling is continuing.

One manufacturer, Olympus, pled guilty in December 2018 to charges of failing to file reports about infections stemming from its scopes.  The company agreed to pay $85 million to resolve the charges. Additionally, the company settled lawsuits with two women whose husbands died after undergoing a procedure with the scope and becoming infected with a “superbug” bacteria resistant to most antibiotics.

Other types of scopes are similarly difficult to clean. Bronchoscopes, which are used to look inside the lungs, have also been found to be contaminated, even after cleaning, and have likewise been linked to “superbug” infections.

Bone Cement

There are over a million joint replacements performed each year in the U.S. In many of these procedures, the surgeon uses bone cement. Bone cement doesn’t actually “glue” the joint into place; it fills the space between the artificial joint and the bone to keep the joint in place. The use of bone cement in joint replacements is not without complications, however. The bone cement can break loose, which can cause pain and affect movement. It can also leak into the body.

The most serious problem is bone cement implantation syndrome (BCIS). Fortunately, this complication is rare, but when it happens, it causes the cardiovascular system to collapse and can cause death, often during the procedure.  BCIS has been reported with knee, shoulder, and hip replacements. One study from the UK reported 41 deaths linked to the use of cement in hip replacement.

BCIS has also been reported in patients undergoing spinal surgery. As early as 2002, the FDA sent a warning about a bone cement that was being used to treat spinal fractures and had been linked to serious complications, including blood clots in the lungs, cardiac failure, and death.

In 2011 the government filed charges against a company called Synthes, a manufacturer of bone cement. The company had been testing a cement that had not been approved by the FDA for use in spinal surgeries. Five patients who received the cement had died during surgery after the company ignored reports that the cement could have fatal consequences. Because the company had not been conducting a clinical trial, patients weren’t advised of the risks and given a chance to decide if they wanted to receive the bone cement. Four Synthes executives were also charged, pled guilty and sentenced to time in jail.

Pelvic Mesh

Pelvic mesh is a relatively recent product that was initially marketed in the 1990s to treat stress urinary incontinence in women. After the success of that product, it started being used for pelvic organ prolapse. However, the use of the mesh for pelvic organ prolapse has been associated with complications including pain, infection, bleeding, mesh erosion, urinary problems, and perforation of organs, and has prompted tens of thousands of lawsuits.

The FDA received over 10,000 reports of serious injuries from pelvic (transvaginal) mesh that occurred from January 2008 to October 2018, including 77 deaths. Previously, in 2011, the FDA had issued a warning, and in 2016 they classified it as a high-risk device.

Earlier this year, a woman was awarded $41 million in a verdict against one of the manufacturers of pelvic mesh, Johnson & Johnson. Altogether, more than 100,000 women are suing manufacturers of pelvic mesh due to the complications they have experienced. Some women describe continuous pain due to the plastic of the mesh perforating the vaginal wall.

This is another instance of the product being marketed and used without the benefit of long-term study, to the detriment of thousands of women. Transvaginal mesh and is banned in the UK, Australia and New Zealand. On February 12, 2019, an FDA panel met to discuss the future of transvaginal mesh in the U.S. The panel decided that rather than pulling the mesh off the market, they would like more long-term studies.

What to Do If You Need a Procedure or Medical Device

If you are faced with needing a medical procedure or device, how can you weigh the risks and benefits? You need to be fully aware of whether the device has been studied in clinical trials and has been approved by the FDA. Even if a device has been approved , such as a duodenoscope, you need to know if there are other issues, such as infection risk, associated with its use.

Doing an internet search on the device or procedure may help answer questions such as:

  • What is the history of the procedure/device?
  • Has the device been approved by the FDA?
  • What are the risks and benefits?
  • What complications have been reported?
  • Are there ongoing lawsuits associated with the device?
  • What are the alternatives?

You should also carefully read the consent document for the procedure, as it should list the potential risks and complications.

Speak with your healthcare providers also. What is their experience with the procedure/device? How many times have they done the procedure?  What are the most common complications? Before making a decision, you may also want to speak with other patients who have had the procedure.

The bottom line is that you should arm yourself with as much knowledge as you can before undergoing a procedure so you know the risks and benefits and can make an informed decision.  

Driving and Cell Phones Are a Deadly Combination

Injuries and deaths due to distracted driving—primarily from the use of cell phones—are increasing. Driving and cell phones are a deadly combination.

A study of driving and cell phone use in 2017 found that almost 90 percent of drivers reported using their cell phones while operating a vehicle. The study also found that drivers spent more than three minutes per hour on their phones, a distraction that significantly increased their chances of having a car accident.

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) reported that distracted driving caused 391,000 injuries from motor vehicle accidents in 2015, and 3,450 deaths in 2016. Of these fatal crashes, 14 percent involved the use of a cell phone.

Cell phone use is often under-reported in accident statistics, however. NHTSA’s Fatality Analysis Reporting System Encyclopedia tracks the causes of motor vehicle accidents. Their information relies on drivers or accident witnesses reporting cell phone use. According to a report from the National Safety Council, “Crashes Involving Cell Phones: Challenges of Collecting and Reporting Reliable Crash Data,” police may not report cell phone use if another violation contributed to the accident. For example, the police report may say that the driver failed to stay in the proper lane, but they may not report that it was due to cell phone use. It may be years before we know the true picture of how many injuries and deaths are caused by distracted drivers, particularly those involving cell phones.

Anything that takes a driver’s eyes or attention off the road is potentially an accident waiting to happen. As a result, many cities and states have passed laws to ban texting and driving.

Tucson ban on cellphones and driving

The Tucson City Council voted last year to regulate the use of cell phones and portable electronic devices while driving. The Council passed a hands-free ordinance making the use of handheld electronic devices while driving a primary offense, which means that police officers can pull over drivers they see or suspect are using a cellphone. The mere fact that a driver is holding a cell phone in his or her hand is an infraction.

A previous law stated that drivers could only be cited for cell phone use if the officer had pulled them over for another reason. A similar law has been in effect in Pima County since 2017.

The change is designed to prevent distractions from texting and using phones for other purposes, such as social media, while operating a vehicle. Under the new law, drivers are permitted to use a hands-free device. Drivers cannot use a device that is not hands-free while driving or while stopped on a street or highway (such as at a stop light or sign).

Ticketing for this offense started in late March. A first-time violator can be fined $50, although if there is an accident the fine will be a minimum of $250.

Arizona—only one of 3 states with no texting ban

Arizona is currently one of only three states that does not have a law that bans texting while driving. In 2016, AT&T analyzed data from a campaign called It Can Wait and found that texting bans are working—states with texting bans have far lower rates of texting while driving. This means fewer drivers in the 47 states that ban texting and driving are putting themselves or others at risk for accidental injury or death.

Last year the Arizona Senate considered a law to ban texting while driving. Although the bill that was put forward by committee was not passed, in July Governor Doug Ducey signed into law a bill that prohibits teenagers from texting while driving when they have a learner’s permit, and within the first six months of getting their driver’s license.

Reduce your risk from distracted driving

You can’t control what others do, but you can reduce your chances of injury from an accident by not using your cell phone at all when you’re driving. According to the National Safety Council, drivers having a phone conversation may miss up to 50 percent of what’s going on around them even when using a hands-free device. Texting is even more of a distraction. A driver’s eyes will be off the road for an average of 4.6 seconds while texting, which at 55 mph means the car can travel the length of a football field without the driver paying attention.

If you are walking or bicycling, it is just as important that you stay focused on your surroundings rather than your electronic device.

Remember also to use your seat belt to reduce your risk if you are involved in an accident.

Wrong-Way Crashes Cause Serious Injury and Death

Each year an average of 360 people nationwide are killed in wrong-way crashes, according to a report by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). The report states that although collisions involving wrong-way drivers only account for about three percent of accidents, wrong-way crashes cause serious injury and death because these are usually head-on crashes.

Several decades of research shows that wrong-way crashes have higher rates of fatalities than other types of accidents. In addition, data from 2004 to 2009 showed that 60 percent of fatal wrong-way crashes likely involved impairment by alcohol.

In Arizona, the number of cases of drivers going the wrong way increased more than eight percent between 2016 and 2017, with over 1,700 reported wrong-way incidents in 2017. That year, wrong way drivers caused 54 accidents, with 18 fatalities.

Arizona Takes Action Against Wrong-Way Driving

The state has been taking measures to reduce wrong-way driving. In the fall of 2017, the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) installed a thermal detection system in Phoenix.

The system uses cameras at exit ramps and along the interstate. When a camera spots a vehicle traveling the wrong way, it sends an alert to ADOT, which then sends messages to highway alert boards to warn drivers of the danger. If the system detects a wrong-way driver at an off-ramp, it activates a flashing red sign to alert the wrong-way driver.

In any case, the system also notifies law enforcement, who can then travel to the scene. As of mid-June, this technology had detected more than 12 wrong-way drivers.

The state has also installed hundreds of larger “Do Not Enter” and “Wrong Way” signs throughout Arizona.

As part of Arizona’s effort to address the wrong-way driving problem, Governor Doug Ducey signed a law last year that imposes tougher penalties for motorists caught driving the wrong way. Wrong-way drivers in Arizona who are found to be under the influence of drugs or alcohol will now face felony charges, including a possible four months to 2½ years in prison. Anyone stopped for wrong-way driving will be fined $500 and will be required to attend traffic school.

“Drive Aware Get There” Safety Campaign

ADOT’S Drive Aware Get There safety campaign was launched to reduce wrong-way driving and help motorists learn what can they can do to protect themselves from a wrong-way driver.

Because research shows most wrong-way drivers are impaired, driving defensively is key to preventing a tragic encounter. Motorists are advised to avoid distractions while driving and to focus on their surroundings, including what is far ahead on the road, giving them a chance to spot any erratic driving and take action before it becomes an issue.

ADOT advises that if you are on a two-lane road, stay away from the center line to accommodate oncoming cars that may be closer to the center line. If you see a vehicle coming towards you, get to the side of the road and call 911. If you are on a highway, try to stay in the right lane, as wrong-way drivers are more likely to be in the far left lane or in the carpool lane.

If you see that a wrong-way driver is coming towards you, ADOT recommends you slow by easing your foot off the gas and try to steer away from the wrong-way driver. Again, if you can, get off the road and call 911.

Of all vehicle accidents, head-on collisions have the greatest potential to cause serious injuries and fatalities. Although Arizona is taking steps to reduce the chances of wrong-way driving, you can do your part to keep yourself and others safe by being alert, wearing your seat belt, not driving while impaired, and avoiding distractions while driving.

Medical Errors Can Lead to Medical Malpractice

A few months ago the AZ Daily Star reported that Banner University Medical Center’s conversion to a new computer system came with a cost to patient care and had resulted in numerous instances of medical errors. The Star cited an investigation by the Arizona Department of Health Services, the state licensing arm that licenses medical facilities and other medical providers, that found at least two substantiated allegations that included the delivery of medications and care for critically ill patients. Although the hospital denied the errors resulted in negative outcomes for patients, the unfortunate reality is that vulnerable patients are the ones at highest risk of medical malpractice in hospital settings.

Patients who have experienced an adverse outcome following a medical procedure or surgery often wonder if their experience rises to the level of medical malpractice, and if they have legal recourse against the doctor, nurse, or medical facility where the incident took place.

What is Medical Malpractice
According the Board of American Liability Attorneys, medical malpractice occurs when a hospital, doctor, or other health care professional, through a negligent act or omission, causes an injury to a patient. The negligence might be the result of errors in diagnosis, treatment, aftercare, or health management.

Medicare “Never Events”
Medicare also weighs in on medical malpractice by providing a list a “Never Events,” which are conditions that may happen in a hospital that are so severe that Medicare will not pay for the additional cost of treating for the event. The “Never Events” list includes:
 Pressure ulcer stages III and IV;
 Falls and trauma;
 Surgical site infection after bariatric surgery for obesity, certain orthopedic procedures, and bypass surgery (mediastinitis);
 Vascular-catheter associated infection;
 Administration of incompatible blood;
 Air embolism;
 Foreign object unintentionally retained after surgery.

Do I have a Medical Malpractice Claim?
When a medical malpractice attorney evaluates a medical malpractice claim, the initial screening will try to determine whether the medical harm was due to negligence, and assess the impact of the medical error to the patient. If there was negligence and the patient was inconvenienced for a period of time but was able to make a full recovery, it’s unlikely a medical malpractice attorney would accept such a case because the damages would not justify the cost of the claim.

However, if the attorney learns during the screening process that there was negligence on the part of the physician or other medical provider and the harm to the patient was catastrophic or resulted in death, the attorney may accept the case and begin the investigation process.

Every case involving medical error is different, as is the level of harm. The attorneys at Hollingsworth Kelly encourage patients or patient advocates to contact our office for a free evaluation if they believe their unsatisfactory experience with a medical provider rises to the level of medical malpractice.

Ignoring Auto Recalls May Put You at Risk for Car Accidents

When a class of vehicles presents a safety hazard that increases the risk for car accidents and serious injury, the manufacturer may recall the vehicles to correct the unsafe issues. Automakers are required to fix defects by repairing or replacing the defective part, offering a refund, or very rarely by repurchasing the vehicle.

Since the beginning of the year, several automakers have issued recalls to fix or replace defects that could have serious safety risks for drivers and their passengers. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) provides monthly reports of vehicles that have been recalled, along with the safety issues that need to be addressed. It’s important to know if your vehicle has been recalled—doing so can help you avoid an accident or serious injury.

How to Check if Your Car is Part of an Active Safety Recall

If you registered your vehicle when you bought it, the manufacturer will mail a notice to alert you it has been recalled. It’s important to keep your vehicle registration updated so you can receive these notifications.

You can sign up with NHTSA to receive e-mail notifications for a vehicle’s specific make and model. You can also check a car’s recall record by entering its VIN number at safercar.gov.

Follow the safety guidance and instructions from the manufacturer if you find that your vehicle has been recalled. In some cases, the defect may pose such a serious safety risk that you will be advised not to drive the vehicle. Do not drive warnings were issued earlier this year when Ford recalled certain 2006 Ford Ranger trucks and Mazda recalled 2006 B-series trucks due to the danger presented by Takata airbags. Although other automakers have also recalled vehicles to fix this airbag issue, Ford and Mazda requested that owners not drive these vehicles until they are repaired, fearing catastrophic injuries.

In another case, Fiat Chrysler recalled more than 4.8 million vehicles in the U.S. to fix an issue that could leave drivers unable to turn off cruise control. Affected vehicles were from the 2014 to 2019 model years and included Jeep (Cherokee, Grand Cherokee, Wrangler), Dodge (Charger, Challenger, Journey, Durango), Chrysler (Chrysler 200, Chrysler 300, Chrysler Pacifica), and Ram (Ram pickups—1500, 2500 and 3500; Ram cab chassis trucks—500/4500/5500). Fiat Chrysler strongly advised drivers to avoid using cruise control until the repairs are made.

In addition to these recalls, this year Hyundai, Honda, Toyota, Kia, Nissan, Mitsubishi, Volkswagen, and General Motors (among others), have also issued recalls to fix a variety of safety issues that could increase the risk of crash or injury. Examples of these recalls include a possible electrical short in the anti-lock brake module due to entry of water, which could lead to an engine fire with risk of injury (Hyundai); possible crack in the drive belt automatic tensioner flange, which could lead to engine stall and crash (Mitsubishi); inaccurate tire information label that could result in overloading and increasing crash risk (Toyota); improper tempering of window glass, which, if broken, could cause the glass to break into large pieces and cause injury (General Motors).

It will cost you nothing to get the work done on your vehicle if it has been recalled. You should call your local dealership as soon as possible if you find that your vehicle has been recalled. Neglecting to do so may put you, your passengers, or other drivers at risk of serious, catastrophic personal injury in the event of a car accident.